What criteria would you use to determine whether synesthesia is a disorder or a variation of normal sensation and perception?

QUESTIONS FOR RESEARCH AND DISCUSSION

7. What criteria would you use to determine whether synesthesia is a disorder or a variation of normal sensation and perception?

8. Why do you think that synesthesia is more common today than it was 20 years ago?

9. Why might it be possible for infants to have synesthesia, but the ability is gradually lost?

10. Would you want to take a genetic test for synesthesia? Cite a reason for your answer.

11. Do you think that synesthesia should be regarded as a learning disability, an advantage, or neither?

CHAPTER 2 Cells

First cousins Sheila and Anika look so much alike, with their curly blond hair and startlingly blue eyes, that people often mistake them for twins. Now, at age 24, they are becoming mothers at the same time. Sheila has just given birth to Mallory, while Anika is in her first trimester of pregnancy. Both young women were biology majors, and so they are intrigued with nursing their babies, perhaps more so than most new mothers. Anika watches as Sheila responds to her baby’s fussing. As soon as Mallory cries in hunger, her mother’s brain sends hormonal signals into her bloodstream that trigger production, secretion and ejection of milk, a process called lactation. Hormones had begun remodeling Sheila’s breasts months earlier, replacing fat with glandular tissue. The system of milk ducts in the breasts, thin branches when Sheila was a child, grew into a lush network of ducts with grapelike tips called alveoli. A day after Mallory’s birth the alveoli swelled, filling Sheila’s breasts. The cells that line the alveoli which now make up most of Sheila’s breasts are specialized forms of epithelium called lactocytes. They secrete milk into the ducts that deliver it to the areola, the pigmented area that supports the nipple. Milk squirts forcefully from 15 to 25 holes when the baby feeds as other specialized cells, called myoepithelial cells, contract. Rare stem cells within the ducts divide, helping to reconfigure the fatty gland into a milk production facility. Milk is a highly complex and variable mixture tailored to anatomy, physiology, and lifestyle. The milks of all mammals consist of the major nutrients—proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals—suspended in water. Genes provide the specific recipe. Human milk has a higher proportion of fats compared to other species, which insulates cells of the developing brain, enabling them to communicate. In contrast, cow’s milk has much more protein than human milk, which a calf uses to rapidly build muscle. Yet marine mammals have even more fat than human milk, which they need to stay warm in frigid waters. Making milk takes a lot of energy. Following the secretion of milk illustrates the functions of organelles (Figure 1). The process begins in the nucleus, where genes encoding various proteins are transcribed into mRNA. Casein proteins are abundant—they provide a variety of amino acids and are therefore highly nutritious. They are also easy to digest. The genetic instructions also specify which antibody proteins line Mallory’s digestive and urinary tracts, protecting her against certain bacterial infections. Other mRNAs made in a lactocyte represent enzymes required to produce the nonprotein parts of milk, such as the sugar lactose and fats.

 

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What criteria would you use to determine whether synesthesia is a disorder or a variation of normal sensation and perception? was first posted on August 14, 2019 at 3:16 pm.
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What criteria would you use to determine whether synesthesia is a disorder or a variation of normal sensation and perception? was first posted on August 14, 2019 at 3:17 pm.

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